Also, the controller gave the wrong position of the DHL plane (2 o'clock instead of the actual 10 o'clock). TCAS (traffic collision avoidance system) was still fairly new technology and was mandatory in Europe since 2000. [10], Less than a minute before the accident he realised the danger and contacted Flight 2937, instructing the pilot to descend to flight level 350 to avoid collision with crossing traffic (Flight 611). Heike Stark said she was reading a book when "all of a sudden there was a noise like thunder."

[5]:35 All TCAS II equipped aircraft have been upgraded to support RA reversal. This was against the regulations but was due to poor management common practice. Deviating statements in the official report. [5]:110[BFU 1], A year and a half after the crash, on 24 February 2004, Peter Nielsen, the air traffic controller on duty at the time of the collision, was murdered in an apparent act of revenge by Vitaly Kaloyev, a Russian citizen who had lost his wife and two children in the accident. DHL Boeing 757-23APF. [13]Originally the children were supposed to leave from Sheremetyevo Airport on a Sunday; the children had arrived late in Moscow and they had arrived at the wrong airport. All 69 people on the Tupolev, and the two on board the Boeing, died. [22] He tracked down and stabbed Nielsen to death, in the presence of Nielsen's wife and three children, at his home in Kloten, near Zürich, on 24 February 2004. Both planes were equipped with anti-collision transponders. The crippled Boeing, now with 80% of its vertical stabilizer lost, struggled for a further seven kilometres (four miles) before crashing into a wooded area close to the village of Taisersdorf at a 70 degree downward angle. The potential for a mid-air collision is increased by miscommunication, mistrust, error in navigation, deviations from flight plans, lack of situational awareness, and the lack of collision-avoidance systems. Skyguide did pay out compensations to the families of the dead children the compensation amount was about SFr30,000 ($34,087). Before 1958, civilian air traffic controllers guiding civilian flights and military controllers guiding military aircraft were both unaware of the other's aircraft. Finally the ground-based optical collision warning system, which would have alerted Nielsen to the pending collision 2½ minutes before it happened had been switched off for maintenance.

The government appealed the ruling, and a final decision is still pending as of 2008. Bashkirian Airlines Tupolev TU154. It says that the report should have put less emphasis on the actions of individuals and more on the faults within Skyguide's organisation and management. Skyguide initially blamed the pilots of Flight 2937 before later accepting responsibility for the accident. "My theory is that this is the fault of the air traffic controllers who brought two airplanes together in midair," Nikolai Odegov was quoted as saying. Where as flight 611 severely crippled fought on for another 7km before crashing into a wooded area close to the village of Taisersdorf at a 70-degree downward angle. Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS), German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accident Investigation, International Civil Aviation Organization, List of notable civilian mid-air collisions, "A9C-DHL DHL International | DHX611 | Boeing 757-23APF – cn 24635 / ln 258", Mid-air collision of 1 July 2002: sequence of events, "Investigation Report AX001-1-2 (English)", German Federal Bureau of Aircraft Accidents Investigation, "Father of air-crash victims guilty of revenge killing", "Father killed air traffic chief over fatal crash", "Father 'saw black' as he killed air traffic controller", "Nothing left to lose: grief-crazed murder suspect haunted by family's air deaths", "Jet pilot's 14 seconds dilemma before fatal crash", "Address by Mr Koïchiro Matsuura, Director-General of UNESCO, on receiving the International Prize of St Andrew for promoting dialogue among civilizations", "В небе Германии столкнулись Ту-154 и Boeing 757: 71 человек погиб", "Plane Crash Remembered; One Mourner Not Welcome", "Appendices/Deviating positions for Investigation Report AX001-1-2/02 MAY 2004", "Information regarding the air accident at Überlingen on 1 July 2002", "Katastrophe von Überlingen – Flugunglück beschäftigt Landgericht", "12 Jahre nach dem Flugzeugunglück bei Überlingen: Wer verantwortet den Himmel über Südbaden?

This manoeuvre does not require any ATC clearance since TCAS takes into account the position of all other aircraft with transponders in the surrounding area.

All countries involved could add additional "deviating" statements to the official report. The TCAS system is programmed to assume that both crews will promptly follow the system's instructions.

There was only one controlled on duty on the night of the fateful accident. As a result he failed to keep the aircraft within safe seperation distances. [BFU 1], It is not required to notify the ATC prior to responding to an RA. The Kingdom of Bahrain, Switzerland and the Russian Federation did submit positions that were published with the official report. On some occasions, military aircraft conducting training flights inadvertently collide with civilian aircraft.

L'encyclopédie française bénéficie de la licence Wikipedia (GNU). Flight 611’s pilots followed the TCAS instructions and initiated a descent, but could not immediately inform ATC because the controller was dealing with Flight 2937. The Russian pilot on the Tupolev disregarded the TCAS instruction to climb and instead began to descend, as instructed by the controller, thus both planes were now descending. DHL flight 611 originated in Bahrain and stopped over in Bergamo, Italy. Following the accident and devastated by the loss of his wife and children Vitaly Kaloyev, hunted and tracked down Peter Nielsen on 24 February 2004. As explained above, a series of coincidences of which Kaloyev and Nielsen were unaware precipitated the accident. About eight seconds before the collision, Flight 611's descent rate was about 2,400 feet per minute (12 m/s), not as rapid as the 2,500 to 3,000 ft/min (13 to 15 m/s) range advised by TCAS. Seven of the children were students at Gymnasium No. About eight seconds before the collision, Flight 611's descent rate was about 12 metres per second (2,400 ft/min), not quite as rapid as the 13 to 15 m/s (2,500 to 3,000 ft/min) range advised by that jet's TCAS; as for the Tupolev, the pilot disregarded his jet's TCAS instruction to climb, having already commenced his descent as instructed by the controller. Switzerland also requested that the BFU make a formal finding that the TCAS advisories would have been useful if obeyed immediately; the BFU declined to do so. They say that the report should have put less emphasis on the actions of individuals and stressed the problems with the organisation and management more.

Although no error in this system could be found in a technical audit; whether this audible warning is turned on or not, is not technically logged. Even if Nielsen had heard this warning, he might have misinterpreted it until the next radar update 12 seconds later became visible or until the TCAS descent notice by the DHL crew came in; at that time finding a useful resolution order by the air traffic controller is difficult to impossible.

However, the Bashkirian pilots were using the Tu-154 Flight Operations Manual, which contains a section that emphasizes the role of the ATC and describes the TCAS system as an additional aid[BFU 5]: The same flight manual, on a different page, also contains a passage that strictly forbids manoeuvers contrary to the TCAS under any circustances. [2] Both pilots survived, but Dickson was so badly injured that he never flew again. [5]:111–113[BFU 2] Had both aircraft followed those automated instructions, the collision would not have occurred. Aviation History: 2002 Überlingen mid-air collision. [17] At Skyguide, his former colleagues maintained a vase with a white rose over Nielsen's former workstation.

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